This surface can be formed by twisting and warping a singly-periodic Scherk’s minimal surface. This idea was originally attributed to Brent Collins. Technically, the surface is no longer considered exactly “minimal” after twisting but it still looks minimal (it is actually very difficult to find the exact shape for most minimal surfaces). Click here to download some POV-Ray code.

Here is some Mathematica code:

`(* runtime: 0.3 second *)`

<< Graphics`Master`; n = 5; r = 0.75n;

Twist[{x_, y_, z_}, theta_] := {x Cos[theta] - y Sin[theta], x Sin[theta] + y Cos[theta], z};

Warp[{x_, y_, z_}, theta_] := {(x + r) Cos[theta], (x + r) Sin[theta], y};

f[z_] := Module[{t1 = Sqrt[2Cot[z]], t2 = Cot[z] + 1}, Warp[Twist[Re[{0.5xsign(Log[t1 - t2] - Log[t1 + t2])/Sqrt[2], ysign I(ArcTan[1 - t1] - ArcTan[1 + t1])/Sqrt[2], z}], 2Re[z]/n], 2Re[z]/n]];

DisplayTogether[Table[ParametricPlot3D[f[x + I y], {x, 0, n Pi}, {y, 0.001, 0.75}, PlotPoints -> {8n + 1, 5}, Compiled -> False], {xsign, -1, 1, 2}, {ysign, -1, 1, 2}]]

The following Mathematica code can be used to increase the number of edges (or “branches”). This code uses some complicated functions that were adapted from Matthias Weber’s Mathematica notebook:

`(* runtime: 1.2 seconds *)`

<< Graphics`Shapes`; k = 4; phi = Pi(0.6/k - 0.5)/(1 - k);

f[z_] := Re[NIntegrate[Evaluate[{0.5 (w^(1 - k) - w^(k - 1)), 0.5 I (w^(1 - k) + w^(k - 1)), 1}/(w^(k + 1) + w^(1 - k) - 2w Cos[k phi])], {w, 0, z}]];

alpha = Pi/k; zbeta = Exp[I Pi(phi/alpha - 0.5)];

surface = ParametricPlot3D[Re[f[Exp[I alpha/2]((1 + I zbeta Exp[r + I theta])/(I Exp[r + I theta] -zbeta))^(alpha/Pi)]], {r, 0, 4}, {theta, 0, Pi}, PlotPoints -> 10, Compiled -> False, DisplayFunction -> Identity][[1]];

z0 = f[1][[3]]; surface = {surface, AffineShape[TranslateShape[surface, {0, 0, -2z0}], {1, 1, -1}]};

surface = {surface, AffineShape[surface, {1, -1, 1}]}; surface = Table[RotateShape[surface, 2Pi i/k, 0, 0], {i, 1, k}];

dz = Pi Csc[k phi]/k; Show[Graphics3D[Table[TranslateShape[surface, {0, 0, i dz}], {i, 0, 1}]]]

### Links

- “Whirled White Web” – a beautiful snow sculpture by Brent Collins
- Sculpture Generator – C++ program for Scherk-Collins surfaces by Carlo Séquin
- Bathsheba Grossman – metal printed math sculptures
- Torolf Sauermann – math art

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